Black Rhinoceros

Diceros Biconis
Basic Information: The black rhinoceros is well know for the living rhinoceros that exist today.

Photograph
Young-black-rhinoceros.jpg
Young black rhinoceros

Young Black Rhinoceros

Scientific Classification
Domain
Eukarya
Kingdom
Animalia
Phylum
Chordata
Class
Mammalia
Order
Perissdactyla
Family
Rhinocerotidae
Genus
Diceros
Species
D.bicornis



Hbitat
File:Black Rhinoceros area.svg
File:Black Rhinoceros area.svg

Once found throughout much of sub-Saharan Africa with the exception of the Congo Basin and other equatorial forest areas of West Africa.The recent place of the black rhinoceros has restricted the range to fragmented populations.The black rhinoceros are commonly found in reserves in Kenya, Tanzania, Namibia, Zimbabwe, South Africa, Cameroon, Malawi and Swaziland.

The black rhinoceros inhabits a variety of habitats, ranging from the deserts of Namibia through wooded grasslands to broadleaved woodlands and acacia savannahs. Midwinter temperatures can reach as low as −15 °C (5 °F). The deep interior has the hottest temperatures: a temperature of 51.7 °C.It receives an annual rainfall of 760 mm (29.9 in). Winters in this region are cold, although snow is rare. The topography They also are most adapted to arid habitat and can be found in arid savanna and desert climates.

The biotic factors of this species habitat are very low because many outsiders are taking advantage of these animals by taking their horn and in danger of extinct.The Black Rhinoceros is a hebivorous that eats leafy plants, branches, shoots, thorny wood bushes, and fruit.Rhinos use several forms of communication. Due to their bad eyesight and solitary nature, scent is often used to identify themselves to other Black Rhinos. Urine spraying occurs on trees and bushes, around water holes and feeding areas. Females urine spray more often when breeding.


Body language also a form of Black Rhinoceros communications. A bull will sometimes display an aggressive ritual towards a potential rival. They will smell, spray repeatedly, scrape, trample, and bash with their heads in bushes
A high-pitched has described for when they are fearful. A high-pitched scream has been observed in times of terror.They do not like other types of animals around because they are afraid of their young getting killed.The longest known horn measured nearly 1.5 m (4.9 ft) in length.Sometimes, a third smaller horn may develop. The horns are used for defense, intimidation, and digging up roots and breaking branches during feeding.
Black rhino in Ngorongoro crater, Tanzania
Black rhino in Ngorongoro crater, Tanzania




Species Interactions

Home ranges vary depending on season and the availability of food and water. Generally they have smaller home ranges and larger in habitats that have plenty of food and water available, and if resources are not readily available.

The Black Rhinoceros is a herbivorous browser that eats leafy plants, branches, shoots, thorny wood bushes,and fruit.
Their diet can reduce the amount of woody plants, which may benefit grazers, but not competing browsers.They look for food in the morning and evening. In the hottest part of the day they are most inactive- resting, sleeping, and wallowing in the mud. Wallowing helps cool down body temperature during the day and protects against parasites. If mud is not available rhinos will wallow in dust. Drinking water is mostly common in the afternoon. When Black Rhinos browse they use their lips to strip the branches of their leaves.
Black Rhinos eating in Kenya
Black Rhinos eating in Kenya


Reproduction

These typically solitary animals coming together to mate, mothers and calves will sometimes come together in small groups for short periods of time. Males are not as sociable as females, although they will sometimes allow the presence of other rhinos. They are not very territorial and often intersect other rhino territories.

When in season the females will mark dung piles. Males following females that are in season will follow her; when she defecates he will scrape and spread the dung, making it more difficult for any other adult males to pick up her scent trail.
Courtship behaviors before mating include snorting and sparring with the horns among males. Another behavior is called bluff and bluster, where the rhino will snort and swing its head from side to side aggressively before running away repeatedly.

The gestation period is 15 to 16 months. The single calf can follow its mother around after just three days. Weaning occurs at around 2 years of age for the offspring. The mother and calf stay together for 2–3 years until the next calf is born; female calves may stay longer, forming small groups. The young are occasionally taken by hyenas and lions.Maturity is reached from 5–7 years old for females, and 7–8 years for males.
Black Rhinoceros with her calf
Black Rhinoceros with her calf


Extinction
The Black rhinoceros has been almost push to extinction due to illegal poaching for their horn and a lesser extinct of their loss because during the 1970's and 1980's , the population has drop 96% because of the need for their horn. In the the middle east, the rhinoceros horns are commonly found in market ready to be sold as a weapon know as a"dagger".The horn is also use in traditional chinese medicine. Some of the medicine are sold in Portland and China town Oregon.Man is the cause of the demise of the rhino. In the wild, the adult black rhino has no true natural predators and, despite its size and antagonistic reputation, it is extremely easy for man to kill. A creature of habitat that lives in a well-defined home range, it usually goes to water holes daily, where it is easily ambushed.Not only the black rhinoceros is being targeted, there're other types of rhinoceros that are being targeted. More than 4 different types of rhinoceros has gone extinct due to poaching their horns.The dramatic decline in rhino numbers is unfortunate in an era of increasing conservation and wildlife awareness, but efforts are underway to save the rhino from extinction.

A black rhinoceros getting ready to charge at someone
A black rhinoceros getting ready to charge at someone



A dead Black Rhinoceros with no Horn
A dead Black Rhinoceros with no Horn